Cancer is a condition that develops when cells in the body begin to grow uncontrollably and can develop in any part of the body. The esophagus is a 10-13 inch long muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Food that is consumed, passes through the esophagus to reach the stomach. The esophagus is made up of various layers, the inner layer of the esophagus is called the mucosa and the outer layer of the esophagus is called adventitia. Cancer of the esophagus generally starts from the inside and then grows outwards.